Biology Fields (With Available Career Opportunities)

Updated June 22, 2023

Some careers in the science field may offer lucrative opportunities for you. Specifically, biology includes a wide range of exciting carers, from criminal justice to the study of the human body. Understanding the careers in this field can help you choose a viable career path that suits your interest and skills. In this article, we explain what biology is and explore a list of biology fields and related careers.

What are biology fields?

Biology fields are categories within biological science. Biology is a type of physical science that focuses on studying living organisms, their essential processes, and their relationship with the environment. This field is broad and may intersect with other sciences, such as medicine, physics, and chemistry. Also, with modern scientific research which encourages cross-disciplinary studies, there are novel fields in biology, such as biochemistry, biophysics, and biomedicine.


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Biology fields and related careers

As there are various living organisms in the world, it's advisable to know what area of biology you want to go into before enrolling for an undergraduate degree. Generally, some sub-fields are further sub-divided into other fields because of the large scope. As a result, it's advisable to conduct proper research to learn what specialty best fits you. Here are some of the common fields with their possible job titles you might consider:

General biology

A major in general biology allows you to learn and get background knowledge in various topics without specializing in a particular area. Studying general biology may be suitable for you if you have an interest in the field, but you're unsure of what area you want to specialize in after college. This is because it allows you to learn about the broad professions and fields. It may be practical to earn a degree in general biology if you intend to pursue an advanced degree in biology or other related fields.

Some careers you can pursue with this degree include:

  • High school science teacher: You can educate students on the fundamentals of biology.

  • Content writer: You can research and explains complex subjects in simple and engaging terms.

  • Biological technician or research assistant: You can gather and prepare bacteria, blood, and food samples for medical scientists or biologists.

  • Biologist: You can conduct analysis and experiments on organisms and organic matter.

Related: What Does a Biologist Do? (With Skills and How to Become)


Microbiology is the study of living organisms that may not be visible to the naked eye. Various fields incorporate this discipline into their research. Advancements in electron microscopes and related technology have also made findings more precise and improved the usefulness of the discipline. Various key advancements in medicine and food are due to advancements in microbiology. Majoring in microbiology offers diverse career opportunities. This field may be a good fit for you if you enjoy areas that primarily focus on studying microscopic organisms. Some careers include:

  • Immunologist: You can study the immune system and develop new vaccines.

  • Virologist: You can study how viruses interact with other living organisms.

  • Food scientist: You can work to improve food products' quality, processing, and safety.

Related: How to Become a Cellular Biologist and Work as a Scientist


This branch focuses on studying genes, heredity in organisms, and genetic variation. It studies how DNA appears in the genes of animals, plants, and humans. Genetics is relevant to other fields in biology because it studies the genetic makeup of all living organisms. Professionals in this field use their research to identify hereditary illnesses, find mutations in organisms, and track a person's heritage. Generally, genetics has experienced exponential growth due to major discoveries in DNA research. As a result, this field may be a great fit for you if you have an interest in innovative and multidisciplinary research projects.

Available career opportunities include:

  • Genetic engineer: You can focus on changing the behaviour and development of existing genes.

  • Genetic counsellor: You can explain genetic test results and help different clients understand their genetic makeup.

  • Bioethicist: You can specialize in ethics of actual and potential decisions in all healthcare and science fields.

Related: What Is a Genetic Counsellor? (And How to Become One)


This field of biology studies all animals, from tiny insects to large mammals, including their habitats, psychology, and reproductive behaviours. Professionals in this field may specialize in a particular type of animal, such as reptiles, birds, and insects. They also perform fieldwork in different parts of the world to identify undiscovered species. If you enjoy travelling and working with animals, you can consider pursuing a career in zoology. Some available career opportunities include:

  • Wildlife biologists: You can study animals in their natural habitat and gathers and analyze data to understand them properly.

  • Veterinarian: You can focus on the medical care of different animal species.

  • Park naturalist: You can develop, conduct, and plan programs to educate and entertain public park visitors about different animals.

Related: A Comprehensive Guide on How to Become a Wildlife Biologist


Ecology involves studying the relationships between living things, including humans, and their environment. The discipline seeks to understand the connection between animals and plants and the physical world around them. Ecologists also aim to understand the biodiversity of an ecosystem and how it affects the environment. The major difference between environmentalism and ecology is that the former focuses on improving the health of natural environments while the latter studies how communities of living organisms corporate with each other and the environment.

A career in ecology may be a good fit for you if you have an interest in sustainable development. Some careers include:

  • Air quality engineer: You can monitor air pollution using advanced equipment and different metrics.

  • Forester: You can tend to forests and other wooded areas and focuses on their development, safety, and conservation.

  • Landscape architect: You can plan infrastructure that enhances and supports the natural environment.


Botany focuses on the study of plants. This field has various specializations such as phycology (algae), horticulture (edible plants), and palynology (spores and plants). Professionals in this field perform a lot of fieldwork because they conduct research out of the laboratory. This discipline has practical applications in different fields. A career in botany may suit you if you enjoy working outdoors and like plants. Available job opportunities include:

  • Arborist: You can study, cultivate, and maintain shrubs and trees.

  • Florist: You can sell, arrange, and grow flowers.

  • Farm manager: You can supervise the administrative and financial operations of a farm.


This field of biology studies the nervous system. In most animals, including human beings, scientists consider the brain to be the most complex organ in the body. Professionals in this field don't completely understand the brain. As a result, they conduct extensive research to understand its capabilities fully. There are various career prospects in the field, and specializations in neuroscience focus on how various factors such as development, behaviour, and cultural environment affect the nervous system.

You can pursue a career in neuroscience if you have an interest in helping patients in the medical setting and performing clinical research. Some carer options include:

  • Machine learning engineer: You can study computer algorithms to improve artificial intelligence.

  • Psychiatrist: You can treat and diagnose clients using psychological and pharmaceutical therapies.

  • Speech-language pathologist: You can specialize in treating and diagnosing language and speech disorders.


Biochemistry refers to studying chemical reactions and how they make life possible. Biochemistry research practices apply to understanding the scope of different science disciplines. Most biochemistry research work typically occurs in a laboratory, but you may also work in different research settings. In addition, this discipline applies to various theoretical and practical fields. If you like working with high-tech equipment in a laboratory, you can consider building a career in biochemistry. Available career opportunities include:

  • Forensic biologist: You can analyze evidence and DNA relevant to criminal investigations.

  • Endocrinologist: You can focus on hormone-related diseases.

  • Life science consultant: You can apply your extensive knowledge in guiding and advising research projects.

Related: How Much Does a Biochemist Make? (With Job Duties)

Marine biology

Marine biology is the study of aquatic organisms and their ecosystems. This field is an increasingly relevant area due to global climate change and initiatives to create sustainable products that can protect the environment's health. Scientists are yet to study and understand some parts of the ocean, which means that there's a lot of room to explore marine biology. You can consider building a career as a marine biologist if you enjoy working outside and are passionate about protecting the environment. Available careers include:

  • Natural resource technician: You can improve sustainability by monitoring the quality of natural resources.

  • Fish culturist: You can sustain the fish population by transporting, raising, and distributing fish to public waters.

  • Marine archeologist: You can explore the sea to study shipwrecks, ancient sites, and other artifacts on ocean beds.


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Pre-med studies

This area is similar to general biology studies. It prepares students for a career in the medical industry by providing them with an overview of biological topics. The coursework in this area typically includes required courses for medical schools, such as physiology, anatomy, chemistry, cell biology, physics, and mathematics. Some available careers for people in this field include:

  • Respiratory therapist: You can treat, educate, and assist in diagnosing patients suffering from lung and heart problems.

  • Sonographer: You can specialize in using ultrasonic imaging devices to produce diagnostic scans, images, three-dimensional volumes, and videos of diagnostic and anatomy data.

  • Emergency medical technician: You can provide emergency medical services to patients.


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