Discover the Top 8 Backend Languages for Web Development

Updated January 30, 2023

If you're interested in web development, it's important to understand backend languages. Backend developers work with clients, frontend developers, and other software engineers to create internet applications. Learning how to write these languages can help you learn the skills necessary to get hired and excel in a backend developer position. In this article, we define backend languages in programming, discuss eight different types of these languages, and compare the differences between backend and frontend development.

What are backend languages in programming?

Backend languages are useful to programmers for designing the internal systems that run in the background of a web application. The back end of a program or application refers to the portion of the software that's not visible to end-users or clients. Backend development programming languages include those that facilitate the process of connecting the server, which sends and receives information and data, to the client who then runs the application on an internet-connected device.

While programming languages are useful in a variety of areas of web development, some are more suited to backend development than others. These languages often have features and tools that enable them to perform smoothly under heavy loads, and frameworks may accompany them. Frameworks are often important in backend development because they enable programmers to design the architecture or structure of the software using pre-existing functions and tools.

Related: 10 of the Most In-Demand Coding Languages for Your Career

8 backend languages

Here's a list of eight backend programming languages for you to consider to help you in your career as a backend or full-stack developer:

1. Ruby

Ruby is an interpreted general-purpose programming language that supports a wide variety of programming paradigms, including procedural, functional, and object-oriented programming. This language is useful for both established web developers and novices looking to get started with backend web programming, as it's relatively easy to learn.

For instance, you might utilize the framework Ruby on Rails (RoR) to build a single line of code rather than creating numerous lines to do the same job. Due to the simplicity of Ruby and RoR, it's suitable for novices learning and practising backend programming. The ease with which you can create tasks and functions in RoR also speeds up software development, which makes Ruby ideal for rapidly prototyping applications and testing their functionality.

2. Python

Python is another popular programming language for backend development. This object-oriented language, which focuses on manipulating data-contained objects, is clear with an easy-to-read and debug syntax. Python programmers may use the open-source framework Django to produce scalable, easily updated, or side-graded online applications using web development-specific tools and methods.

Like Ruby, Python is a popular option for new programmers as it's easy to understand and access. There's also an abundance of published materials available online to assist learners. While coding with Python, you may select from a range of backend frameworks, including Django, giving you more design freedom while maintaining the convenience of Python's syntax and built-in tools.

3. SQL

SQL means structured query language. It's a programming language that makes use of queries, or data requests, to get data from databases. SQL enables you to extract vital server-side data from databases and use it to conduct actions that help ensure the client side of an application or program runs effectively. This programming language is especially beneficial for updating internal corporate databases and obtaining data for customers.

Backend developers often utilize SQL to execute administrative activities that aid in the operation of a piece of software, rather than to provide the groundwork for its features. As many databases use this language to deal with data, it may be useful for you to learn it if you want to know how data retrieval and changes might influence a software's backend operations.

Related: A Guide to SQL Interview Questions and Sample Answers

4. PHP

PHP is an abbreviation for hypertext preprocessor. It's a scripting language, which means that the computer directly reads the code you write rather than translating it into machine-readable code via a compiler. Because it's an interpreted language, it runs on almost every major operating system. PHP has an easy-to-learn nature, cross-platform compatibility, OOPs features, support for several standard databases such as MySQL and SQLite, and a large community of developers.

Apart from that, PHP is a fairly secure server-side programming language. While you may want to go back through your program later to assess the bugs in your code, this can help you feel more accomplished and learn how to finish the back end of a project.

5. C#

C# is a contemporary, general-purpose programming language that may accomplish a broad variety of activities and goals across several professions. C# is generally used with the Windows .NET Framework, although it's also compatible with open source platforms. Programmers can utilize this language with a variety of frameworks to create the internal structure of websites and integrate client and server activities to create fully functional software. C# and its associated frameworks are a dependable option for web and software development due to their variety and reliability.

C# shares similarities with C and C++, both of which are excellent backend programming languages. If you're familiar with the fundamentals of these languages, you may find it easier to learn C#. Even novices may easily learn C# because of its error-proof instructions that alert you to potential problems before you test your application. This may assist you in learning backend development and completing projects independently before attempting a more difficult language.

6. Golang

Golang, frequently abbreviated to Go, is a useful backend language for a wide variety of software and web development projects. Golang is a static language, which means that it detects errors before it performs the program. This makes it easier to identify particular issues in your code before testing it. With its straightforward syntax, you can create code easily and scale it up or down as required.

Developers created Golang to make web development simpler and more secure, so you can use this dependable language with confidence for backend development. If you want to study Golang, you may also use connected frameworks, such as Beego and Echo, to build robust and effective server-side functionality for your program or application.

7. Java

Java is another excellent programming language for developing backend web applications. The object-oriented programming language is typically useful for constructing enterprise-scale online applications and apps for mobile, desktop, and scientific computing. A fundamental benefit of Java is that it adheres to the “write once, run anywhere” concept, which means that compiled Java code may run on any platform that supports Java without recompilation. To put it another way, Java code is first compiled into machine-independent byte code and then executed on the Java Virtual Machine independently of the underlying architecture.

Additionally, Java provides multi-threading, which allows for the concurrent execution of two or more threads to maximize CPU usage. Java is also platform-independent, adheres to OOP ideas, has many open-source libraries, supports automated memory allocation and garbage collection, and is portable.

Related: Popular Web Developer Interview Questions (With Examples Answers)

8. JavaScript

JavaScript is a scripting language used for backend and full-stack development. JavaScript is often particularly useful for web development. Its easy setup and supportive community of JavaScript professionals have made it the language of choice for most websites. This language is helpful for backend development due to its easy scripting syntax and client-side validation capabilities, which enable JavaScript applications to communicate with browsers to verify data.

Employers may need applicants for backend and full-stack developer positions to be familiar with JavaScript and other programming languages. Learning JavaScript is beneficial if you want to apply your knowledge to all aspects of web development and gain a thorough understanding of both frontend and backend features.

What is the difference between frontend and backend?

While both frontend and backend development are necessary to make a website, they are very distinct. A frontend developer is responsible for the "front" of a website or application, which refers to the design and code that ensures the website works correctly for the end-user. Backend refers to everything that happens on the "back" end, or server-side, of a website or application, such as data transformation and storage. It also refers to the capacity to provide data in a scalable and highly available way.

Please note that none of the companies, institutions, or organizations mentioned in this article are affiliated with Indeed.


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